Cross racial dating
These preferences resist and support hegemonic family formation, an ideological and behavioral process that privileges, white, middle class, endogamous, heteronormative ideals for families comprising courtship, marriage, and biological childbearing. “alternative” families from divorce, cohabitation, interracial relationships, and adoption, the nuclear family remains the form of family institution that accrues various economic, legal, and emotional benefits .
By challenging the racial devaluation of people of color while preferring the normativity that endogamy offers, the women in this study underscore the fluidity embedded in endogamy. Implicit in this normative family structure are same-race and separate sex partnerships rooted in “pseudo”-biological expectations of childbearing.
In contrast to research suggesting that the highly educated are more likely to prioritize educational endogamy and marry interracially [5,6,7], I demonstrate that professional Black women and Latinas prefer same-race similarly educated men with whom to form families, preferences that carry both normative and subversive implications for families more broadly.
The desire for racial and educational endogamies among women of color simultaneously reproduces and challenges what I term “hegemonic family formation”, an ideological and behavioral meaning-making process that privileges white, middle class, heteronormative ideals for forming endogamous, nuclear families comprising courtship, marriage, and childbearing along a continuum.
Just as the existence of hegemonic femininity implies the existence of marginalized femininities, in the same way, hegemonic family formation begets marginalized family formations.
The absence of cultural, legal, social, and economic privileges accorded to marginalized families results in perceptions of them as “deviant” or “alternative” in relation to the nuclear family structure, making families sites for both marginalization and resistance.
Latinas and Black women produce an interesting comparison given that they share some important educational trends.
Namely, Latinas and Black women share the experience of greater gains in higher education and professional work compared to their same-race/ethnicity male counterparts.
Black women are less likely to marry compared to all other racial/ethnic groups and to Black men, more likely to have children outside of marriage, and less likely to marry outside of their race, with Black women making up 12 percent of newlyweds married to someone of a different race in 2013 compared to Black men who comprised 25 percent of new interracial marriages that year .I find that professional Latinas and Black women prefer same-race, similarly educated partners but report significant barriers to satisfying these desires.Respondents’ experiences with racism, the rejection of ethno-racial and cultural assimilation, gendered racism from men of color, and the college gender gap emerge as mechanisms for endogamous preferences.While the preference for men of color challenges racial hegemony by placing greater value on men of color in comparison to white men, the prevalence of same-race and same-education marriages for nuclear families makes endogamy an important aspect for embodying the nuclear family structure, making interracial and interclass dating less coveted and viable options.The mechanisms that challenge and reproduce hegemonic family formation in this study are experiences with racism from whites, the rejection of racial and cultural incorporation into the dominant society, gendered racism from men of color, and the college gender gap.Fittingly, I conceptualize hegemonic family formation—linked to the existence of hegemonic femininity—as an ideological and behavioral process; as such, it privileges heteronormative ideals for forming families at the expense of other forms of kinship.Within this process, racial and educational endogamies serve two contrasting purposes: they reproduce hegemony by reinforcing the normativity of intragroup relations while also challenging the hegemony attached to racial scripts that devalue people of color.As a result, the nuclear family structure is hegemonic, reproducing the belief that marriage and childbearing between members of the same ethno-racial group are value-laden, commonplace expectations.Those who opt out of or cannot achieve a marital union and biological childbearing not only face a loss of material benefits, but also the social benefits of normative family formation.Originating from Black feminist theorizing and activism, intersectional studies argue that lived experiences stem from the relationships between multiple identities, including but not limited to race, class, gender, and sexuality [8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15].Intersectional work highlights the mechanisms that construct social and institutional arrangements of power that create unequal material realities. traditional family ideal, consisting of “heterosexual couples that produce their own biological children (and) have a specific authority structure; namely, a father-head earning an adequate family wage, a stay-at-home wife, and children”  (p.