Dating integratsia ru
There were established Arctic routes from Scandinavia to Greenland and to Bjarmia (To recognize the activity pattern of the Arctic Vikings the familiar perception of the way as a distance should be substituted for its old Scandinavian meaning as the life space of seafarers.
This type of way (vergr) sometimes turned into a state (ríki) as it happened with ) or a trade main road (as the Baltic-Caspian route).
Even trade loses its rational economic meaning and turns into a means of diplomacy and politics.
What is the correlation between the features of ecological and social adaptation, and how well are they captured by archaeology?
Within the scale man-nature a two-dimensional model of ecological adaptation can be drawn.
Updated with man-society scale the model includes social adaptation and becomes three-dimensional.
Established routes of the Norsemen developed as the replicas of their culture consisting of the combination of maritime and agrarian economy, trade and a set of colonies, rituals and mythology, warfare and diplomacy.I have in mind here the northern cultures of the Middle Ages, with their greater wealth of archaeological, historical and ethnographic background.In this paper I shall limit myself with a brief outline of activity patterns of the seafarers of Scandinavia and The Vikings predecessors in the Arctic sea route development were the ancient Scandinavians and the Finns who built the mysterious stone labyrinths and put pictures of ships and whales on the rocks of Scandinavia and centuries the Vikings expanded the Arctic navigable space to the west to North America (Leif Eriksson, 1000, raid from Greenland to Helluland, Markland and Vinland) and to the east to North Ural area (Ulf Roegnvaldson, 1032, raid from Ladoga to the Iron Gates apparently the Kara Gates Strait dividing Barents and Kara seas).But was it so that adaptation in the North always balanced on the edge of survival, and predominating reason for migrations and cultural change was inevitably the search for new hunting grounds?Did the North ever give birth to cultures that managed to surpass the subsistence ground and create social systems comparable with the southern civilizations?The grimly-romantic image of the Norse pirate is hiding a net of Scandinavian seafarers activities, as complex as a ring-chain motif of the Borre art style.century) is impressive in its multiplicity: Ottar used horses to plough land and hunted walruses in the sea; he owned over six hundred reindeer, two dozen each of pigs, sheep and cows; he collected tributes from the Finns (Finnmark Saami) with draught reindeer, skins of otters, martens, bears, reindeer, birds feathers, walrus tusks, seal and walrus hide ropes., and founder and director of the Ethnographic Bureau, also headquartered in Ekaterinburg.He has led numerous anthropological and archeological expeditions in the Russian North, particularly studying peoples who depend on large-scale reindeer herding.Two-dimensional model exists only in the virtual academic environment, since in reality even a Robinsonade would be unthinkable outside the social context.However, the two-dimensional model is a very convenient research tool, as it allows to use a rigorous and substantiated set of criteria.