Democratic republic congo dating
Mission de l’Organisation des Nations Unies pour la Stabilisation en République Démocratique du Congo (MONUSCO). https://monusco.unmissions.org/sites/default/files/131024_monusco_cps_public_report_on_armed_group_recruitment_2012-2013 Children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in the mining of gold, tin ore (cassiterite), tantalum ore (coltan), and tungsten ore (wolframite), and are used in armed conflict, sometimes as a result of forcible recruitment or abduction by non-state armed groups.(1-5) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in the DRC. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education Farming, including tilling fields, planting seeds, watering crops, carrying heavy loads,† weeding, harvesting crops, and use of chemical products and machetes in the production of coffee, peanuts, tea, quinine, eggplant, manioc, sweet potatoes, leafy greens, corn, beans, rice, cassava leaves, and other vegetables (3, 8-13) Mining,† including sifting, cleaning, washing, sorting, working underground,† transporting, carrying heavy loads,† use of mercury and explosives, and digging in the production of diamonds, copper, cobalt ore (heterogenite), gold, tin ore (cassiterite), tantalum ore (coltan), and tungsten ore (wolframite) (1-3, 8, 9, 15-23) Forced recruitment of children by non-state armed groups for use in armed conflict, including as bodyguards, messengers, porters, domestic workers, spies, check point monitors, looters, and concubines (4, 29, 35-39) (FRPI), Mayi Mayi groups, and other armed groups—continued to abduct and recruit children to be used in their units.(37-41) Some victims of child trafficking were recruited at refugee camps in neighboring countries and transported through DRC to participate in armed conflict.(27) Child labor in artisanal mining is prevalent in the provinces of Katanga, Eastern and Western Kasai, North and South Kivu, and Orientale, and the commercial sexual exploitation of girls and sometimes boys is prevalent around mining sites.(2, 4, 14) However, a comprehensive, standalone, child labor survey has never been conducted in the DRC.(13, 42) Although the Government has mandated free primary education, these laws were not implemented throughout the country and some families are required to pay for school uniforms, tuition, and additional fees, which may be prohibitive.(2, 8, 9, 13, 19, 21, 25, 40, 43-45) Many schools throughout the DRC are oversubscribed, understaffed, poorly maintained, or require students to travel long distances.(2, 8, 12, 45, 46) Schools in eastern DRC may be closed due to the conflict, or occupied by armed groups or internally displaced persons.(5, 8, 29, 37, 39-41, 47) There are also reports that children may be forcibly recruited or sexually abused on their way to school or subject to physical or sexual abuse at school.(27, 29, 40, 47) Children may sometimes join armed groups or engage in child labor in artisanal mines hoping to earn money, and internally displaced children often have difficulty accessing education.(2, 9, 15, 17, 19, 22, 46, 48) Low rates of birth registration leave many children vulnerable to child labor.(9, 40, 46, 49) The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in the DRC’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor Articles 28-35 of Decree on Working Conditions for Women and Children; Articles 10-15 of the Decree Establishing the Conditions for Children’s Work; Articles 23 and 26 of the Mining Code; Article 8b of the Decree on Validation Procedures for Artisanal Mines; Article 125 of the Labor Code (52-56) Articles 2 and 3 of the Labor Code; Articles 53 and 187 of the Child Protection Code; Articles 16 and 61 of the Constitution; Article 8 of the Decree Establishing the Conditions for Children’s Work (44, 50, 51, 53) Article 3 of the Labor Code; Articles 53 and 162 of the Child Protection Code; Article 174j of the Penal Code; Article 8 of the Decree Establishing the Conditions for Children’s Work (50, 51, 53, 57) Article 3 of the Labor Code; Articles 53, 61, 169, 173, 179-180, 182, 183, and 187 of the Child Protection Code; Article 174 b, 174 j, 174 m, and 174 n of the Penal Code; Article 8 of the Decree Establishing the Conditions for Children’s Work (50, 51, 53, 57) * No conscription (3) ‡ Age calculated based on available information (43, 50, 60) In July 2016, the Government adopted revisions to the Labor Code that raise the minimum working age to 18, prohibit children from working at night in either public or private enterprises, and permit children ages 16 and 17 to engage in light work as determined by the Ministry of Labor. However, the fine for violating the minimum age law is , and penalties for forced child labor are not commensurate with penalties imposed for other worst forms of child labor.(50, 52) Other laws awaiting adoption include a law to establish specialized mixed chambers to try war crimes, including the recruitment and use of child soldiers; the implementing decree for the Child Protection Code; and a Mining Code revision that punishes forced child labor on mining sites.(20, 29, 31, 61-63) The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement Enforce criminal laws related to child labor.(9, 27) Oversee four juvenile courts in Kinshasa, 18 UNICEF-funded child protection courts throughout the country, and assist the International Criminal Court in conducting investigations and prosecutions against individuals who allegedly used children in armed conflict.(64, 65) Through its Congolese National Police Unit for the Protection of Women and Children, enforce laws related to the worst forms of child labor.(62, 66) Through its Police for Child Protection and Combating Sexual Violence (PEVS), combat conflict-related sexual and gender-based violence against women and children, protect children and women who are victims of physical abuse, and ensure demobilization of children.
The National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor has been awaiting approval from the National Labor Council since 2015.(65) In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10). Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor Projects in support of re-establishing peace and stability.
As part of its Child Soldiers Action Plan, the Joint Technical Working Group established new committees in Tanganyika and North Kivu and validated standard operating procedures for age verification in military recruitment. "In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, helping children of the mines find a way out." [online] February 26, 2013 [cited January 10, 2014];
The Government also worked with the UN to investigate individuals accused of forcibly recruiting children and initiated plans for making reparations to former child soldiers.
In 2016, the Democratic Republic of the Congo made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor.
The Government adopted a revision to the Labor Code that raised the minimum age of work to 18 and launched a Human Development Systems Strengthening Project that aims to increase access to birth registration and improve school infrastructure.