New nanomaterials for protecting and consolidating stone Carmen sexy cam
The fact that the isolated and identified bacterial community is common to many stone artworks may enable worldwide application of this novel conservation methodology.Landmarks of the world’s cultural heritage, like the pyramids and the Sphinx in Egypt, the cathedrals in Europe and America, and the Maya temples in Mesoamerica, built of or carved out of stone, are inexorably crumbling due to physical, chemical and biological weathering.Thereby, different nanomaterials have been developed and applied as consolidating products and protective coatings in stone artworks.Due to the increased compatibility of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) with a large part of the built and sculptural heritage, this chapter accentuates the use of inorganic NPs for the consolidation and antifungal protection of stone heritage.The degradation of stone cultural heritage represents an irreversible loss of rich cultural heritage, and seeking ways to preserve it is urgent.Among different degradation processes, the loss of stone cohesion and biodeterioration are two of the most common issues that affect stone substrates.
In recent years, bacterial biomineralization, also called bacterial carbonatogenesis, has emerged as an environmentally friendly methodology for the conservation of decayed stones, particularly those made up of carbonate minerals (such as limestone and marble, which are among the most commonly used in artworks and monuments).
Enhanced salt weathering resulting from global warming and increasing environmental pollution is endangering the survival of stone monuments and artworks.
To mitigate the effects of these deleterious processes, numerous conservation treatments have been applied that, however, show limited efficacy.
The conservation of such historic and culturally significant stone artworks typically involves the in situ protection and/or consolidation of damaged stones, commonly by applying organic polymers, alkoxysilanes, or inorganic materials, which bind loose grains and/or fill cracks.
However, these conventional conservation methods have limitations and disadvantages, including physical-chemical incompatibility (e.g., organic polymers), alteration of the stone appearance, and the formation of superficial films that induce further damage by pore blocking that limits water vapor transport.